An investigation of how mud flows at very low temperatures and under the reduced atmospheric pressure of Mars, undertaken through a Europlanet 2020 RI Transnational Access visit, has been published in the journal Nature Geoscience. Research carried out at the Open University’s Mars Chamber in 2018 has shown that mud flowing under martian conditions behaves in a similar way to lava in volcanic areas of Hawaii or Iceland.
Water-rich mud was poured over a cold sandy surface in hostile, Mars-like conditions, with multiple cameras capturing the results. The experiments revealed that the instability of water within the mud changes the way the mud flows on Mars, compared to on Earth.
Liquid mud spills from ruptures in the frozen muddy crust, then refreezes to form “lobes”. The findings suggests that martian mud volcanoes may be substantially different in shape and look very different from their terrestrial equivalents. This work has wide implications for understanding cryovolcanism on icy bodies in the Solar System.
Lead author of the study, Dr. Petr Brož from the Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences, said, “This is a very exciting and unexpected result. We have a tendency to expect that geological processes, like mud movement, would be operating elsewhere in the Solar system in a similar fashion as on Earth. Our experiments clearly show that, in reality, this simple process would be very different on Mars.”
Europlanet Telescope Network issues 1st Alert – A new north polar spot in Saturn
On 30th March 2020, amateur astronomer Andy Casely from Australia obtained images of the planet Saturn that showed the presence of a white spot at Saturn’s North polar latitudes, just on the edge of the famous Saturn’s hexagon.
An observational alert was released through the PVOL data service provided by Europlanet 20204 Research Infrastructure (RI) and the HST-Jupiter e-mail list, both followed by many amateur astronomers and planetary scientists.
Since then, the spot has been observed several times allowing its scientific study. This bright spot has developed two years after the eruption of several convective storms in Saturn at the same latitude (Sánchez-Lavega et al., Nature Astronomy, 2020) and the new possible storm is a surprise that shows the importance of amateur observations in the monitoring of the atmospheres of the planets and in the discovery of new phenomenon.
The Europlanet 2024 RI’s new Europlanet Telescope Network will work continuously in cooperation with amateur astronomers to provide an observational alert for unexpected astronomical events that could be followed quickly through a world-class collaboration.
One of Europlanet 2024 RI’s Transnational Access facilities has contributed to a new analysis of pigments used by Vermeer to add highlights to his famous painting, “Girl with a Pearl Earring”.
The ratio of lead isotopes in individual layers of the paint were analysed at the Geology and Geochemistry Isotope Facility (GGIF) at the Vrije University Amsterdam, to try to identify the pigment’s geographical origin. The study revealed that the lead in white paint and primer used by Vermeer all came from a mine located in the Peak District in Derbyshire, UK.
The research is part of “The Girl in the Spotlight”, an international study of the painting led by the Mauritshuis museum in The Hague. Researchers from VU Amsterdam, including Paolo D’Imporzano and Gareth Davies, analysed samples from loose fragments of paint collected during restoration and cross sections taken from the edge of the painting. The researchers compared the lead isotope ratios in different paint layers with data from lead mines across Europe, which have distinct regional signatures as a result of variations in the geological settings. The team found that the source of the pigment in the “Girl with a Pearl Earring” was constant and consistent with the lead used in other Dutch paintings from the 17th century. The question now facing art historians is: does this mean that Vermeer’s studio processed the white lead to produce a range of pigments, or were the different pigments purchased from a single supplier?
D’Imporzano and Davies are currently working with the Rijksmuseum to build up a detailed database of 17th-century Dutch paintings with a view to understanding how the source of lead varied over time and to determine whether lead isotope analysis can help identify when a particular work was painted.
Read the paper: van Loon, A., Vandivere, A., Delaney, J.K. et al. Beauty is skin deep: the skin tones of Vermeer’s Girl with a Pearl Earring. Herit Sci7, 102 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40494-019-0344-0
Image: Detail of Johannes Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, c. 1665, oil on canvas, Mauritshuis, The Hague (inv nr 670), showing the face of the Girl and sample locations 39 and 40. a Visible light image. René Gerritsen Art & Research Photography. Corresponding MA-XRF maps (0.4 mm/pixel): b, c lead (Pb-L), d iron, e lead (Pb-M), f mercury, gpotassium, h calcium, i copper. Credit: René Gerritsen Art & Research Photography / van Loon et al
In early April, as the European-Japanese BepiColombo spacecraft was approaching our home planet ahead of the first flyby in its seven-year journey to Mercury, mission scientists invited amateur astronomers to observe the event from Earth and share their photos of this unique event. The authors of the three best images of the flyby – the best glimpse, the best track and the last glimpse – selected by the jury will receive a scale model of BepiColombo.
Over thirty observers from around the world participated in the campaign. The jury, composed of BepiColombo mission experts, was very positively impressed by all entries, both on aesthetical grounds and because of the good quality of the astronomical observations, and wishes to thank all participants who observed the Mercury explorer as it crossed our sky and immortalized it in their beautiful images and sequences.
The winning photos are:
A view of BepiColombo passing through a deep sky object – the Blue Horsehead Nebula – taken in the early hours of 10 April by S. Silva in Porto Feliz, São Paulo, Brazil, which was selected as the ‘best glimpse’ of the flyby;
A sequence of images of BepiColombo moving through a stellar field, featuring a ‘guest’ appearance of a piece of space debris – a decommissioned geostationary satellite – captured in the evening of 10 April from the Northolt Branch Observatories by G. Welles and D. Bamberger in London, UK, which was selected as ‘the best track of BepiColombo’ during its passage above the horizon;
A parting view of the spacecraft, a dot against the tracks of distant stars, taken on 19 April from the Rikubetsu Space and Science Museum observatory in Ashoro District, Hokkaido, Japan, which was selected as the ‘last glimpse’ of BepiColombo.
The jury also acknowledges the following contributions with a special mention: Gianluca Masi, Virtual Telescope Project; Alain Maury, Jean Marc Mari and Joaquin Fabrega; Inoue Takeshi; Kenichi Shirakami; Masanori Mizutani; T. Oribe, Saji Observatory; Nicolas Biver.
BepiColombo reached its closest approach to Earth at 04:24:57 UTC on 10 April, flying only 12 689 km above our planet’s surface. The manoeuvre – the first of nine planetary flyby and the only one of Earth – tightened the spacecraft’s orbit towards the inner Solar System, where it is scheduled to meet Venus on 15 October for the first of two flybys of this planet on the way to Mercury.
The last glimpse of BepiColombo
This image shows a parting view of the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo spacecraft, taken from Japan more than a week after the mission performed its Earth on 10 April 2020. The spacecraft is visible as a dot (circled) against the tracks of distant stars.
Captured between 12:43:19 and 13:18:23 UTC on 19 April from the Rikubetsu Space and Science Museum observatory in Ashoro District, Hokkaido, Japan, the image was selected as the ‘last glimpse’ of the BepiColombo flyby as part of a photographic contest aimed at amateur astronomers.
The jury appreciated that the observers tried until the very end, nine days after closest approach, and succeed in obtaining an appealing image – even in colour – of the spacecraft as it departed from our planet.
The colour image is a stack of 32x 60-second exposures obtained using a 1.15m f/5.6 Ritchey-Chretien telescope and Canon EOS 6D.
Credit: Rikubetsu Space and Science Museum
BepiColombo passing through the Blue Horsehead Nebula
This image shows the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo spacecraft moving across the sky as viewed from Brazil during its Earth flyby on 10 April 2020. The moving spacecraft is visible as a series of four diagonal lines crossing the frame from top left to bottom right against a field of stars featuring a beautiful deep sky object, the reflection nebula known as Blue Horsehead Nebula, or IC 4592.
The flyby was captured by Sergio Silva from Porto Feliz, São Paulo, Brazil, at 04:39:58 UTC on 10 April. The flyby observation comprises four 15-second exposures as part of a 3-hour long exposure to image the nebula.
The jury appreciated the choice to combine the flyby, not far from Earth, and a distant nebula, observing the event against a deep sky object, as well as the fine quality of the image and processing.
The image was obtained using a Celestron C11 Edge HD telescope with a Hyperstar lens, a iOptron CEM60 mount and a ZWO ASI071MC-Pro camera.
Credit: S. Silva
A tale of two spacecraft: BepiColombo and the INSAT 2D satellite
This sequence of images shows the ESA/JAXA BepiColombo spacecraft during its Earth flyby on 10 April 2020, crossing the sky as viewed from the UK. The spacecraft is visible as a moving dot in the frame of stars, making its way from the lower right towards the upper left; halfway through the observations, another satellite also made an appearance, moving from the right towards the left in the upper part of the frame.
The sequence was captured at 21:13 UTC on 10 April by G. Welles and D. Bamberger from the Northolt Branch Observatories, a British-German collaboration of astrophotographers with telescopes located in London, UK.
The jury appreciated the nice tracking sequence, the serendipitous coincidence that another satellite was caught in the observations, and the effort to identify the piece of space debris as the decommissioned geostationary satellite INSAT 2D.
The image was obtained using the observatory’s 0.25m Ritchey-Chretien telescope and a QHY42 CMOS camera.
Call for Nominations of Paolo Farinella Prize 2020 now open
** DEADLINE EXTENDED TO 1 JUNE**
To honor the memory and the outstanding figure of Paolo Farinella (1953-2000), an extraordinary scientist and person, a prize has been established in recognition of significant contributions in one of the fields of interest of Paolo, which spanned from planetary sciences to space geodesy, fundamental physics, science popularization, security in space, weapons control and disarmament.
The prize was proposed during the “International Workshop on Paolo Farinella, the scientist and the man“, held in Pisa in 2010, and the 2020 edition is supported by the Europlanet Society.
The tenth Paolo Farinella Prize will be awarded to a young scientist with outstanding contributions in the field of planetary science concerning “Structure, Physics and Dynamics of Giant Planets”, including work on the composition, atmospheric dynamics, and interior structure of giant planets inside or outside of our solar system. The award winner will be honoured during the Europlanet Science Congress (EPSC) 2020. It will also honor the outstanding scientific contributions of Adam Showman (1968-2020) who had accepted to be a member of the prize committee and passed away unexpectedly twenty years after Paolo Farinella.
For the 10th “Paolo Farinella” Prize the terms and rules are as follows:
A competition is announced to award the “Paolo Farinella” Prize for the year 2020. The prize consists of a plate, a certificate and the amount of 1500 €. The winner is expected to give a Prize lecture during EPSC 2020.
The winner will be selected on the basis of his/her overall research results in the field of “Structure, Physics and Dynamics of Giant Planets”.
The nominations for the “Paolo Farinella” Prize can be made by any researcher that works in the field of planetary sciences following the indications in the attached form. Self nominations are acceptable. The candidates should have international and interdisciplinary collaborations and should be not older than the age of Paolo when he passed away, 47 years, on May 15, 2020.
The winner of the prize will be selected before June 20 by the “Paolo Farinella” Prize Committee composed of outstanding scientists in planetary sciences, with specific experience in the field.
The Prize Committee will consider all the nominations, but will be entitled to autonomously consider other candidates.
Previous recipients of the “Paolo Farinella Prize” were:
2011: William F. Bottke, for his contribution to the field of “Physics and dynamics of small solar system bodies”
2012: John Chambers, for his contribution to the field of “Formation and early evolution of the solar system “
2013: Patrick Michel, for his contribution to the field of ” Collisional processes in the Solar System”
2014: David Vokrouhlicky, for his contribution to the field of “Non gravitational forces in the Solar System”
2015: Nicolas Biver, for his contribution to the field of “Dynamics and physics of comets”
2016: Kleomenis Tsiganis, for his contribution to the field of “Applications of celestial mechanics to the natural bodies of our solar system”.
2017: Simone Marchi, for his contribution to the field of “Physics and dynamics of the inner planets of the solar system and their satellites”
2018: Francis Nimmo, for his contribution to the field of “Giant planets satellite systems”
2019: Scott Sheppard and Chad Trujillo, jointly, for their contribution to the field of “The Trans-Neptunian Population”
Inspiring Stories – A picture is worth a thousand words
In this EPEC Inspiring Story, Maike Brigitte Neuland, an early career scientist at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in Kiruna/Sweden, shares her experience preparing and organising an international painting challenge for kids.
Language, spoken or written, is the only way to communicate and discuss scientific questions, complex solutions, and to share experience and knowledge. Several thousand languages are spoken worldwide. Working in a field of science and/or technology, we naturally hold meetings and read publications in English. In between, we may take notes of measurement results and conclusions, or send a text to our family, in our mother tongue.
“Most of the fundamental ideas of science are essentially simple, and may, as a rule, be expressed in a language comprehensible to everyone.”
Breaking down our research field, and scientific topics in general, into a simple language that is understandable also to children is already a difficult task, at least for many of us. And if doing outreach projects with children, we are bound to our mother tongue, plus English, plus some other languages we might know.
The General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a conference with more than 10,000 participants every year. For scientists who are parents, the conference offers child care where kindergarten workers take care of children with a vast range of ages, while their parents attend the meeting. Together with a group of early career scientists of the EGU Planetary and Solar System Sciences (PS) division, we had the idea to organise a painting competition for the children staying at the EGU child care in 2017. The topic of this drawing contest should be, of course, related to space research. To inspire the kids and to give them an idea of what they should draw for us, I wrote a little text in English:
Expedition to space
Far away from Earth, there exist endless other planets, stars and galaxies. Years ago, humans successfully travelled to the Moon for the first time. The astronauts landed there and measured what the air and the soil there are made of. What do you think? Will humans also travel to planets, where the journey takes much more time than to the Moon?
What do these people do on the Moon or on other planets? They are interested in how it looks like there, if plants are growing there, what the soil is composed of and if perhaps it would be possible to live there. How do you imagine such a journey in space? What does a research station on another planet look like? And what do the people, who are working there, look like? Which tools and which vehicles do they use to explore their surrounding?
Help us to design such a research station! Make a drawing of the researchers during their life in space, of their work and their adventures!
But of course, as the nationalities of the conference participants were diverse, so were the languages spoken by their children. So the problem we were facing, was how to communicate the topic to all children.
“I feel it is unnatural and immoral to try to teach science to children in a foreign language. They will know facts, but they will miss the spirit.”
C. V. Raman
As diverse as the languages spoken at a conferences, so are the nationalities and mother tongues of my current and former work colleagues, and my friends. With the help of many people, I reached out to get my little text translated into 20 more languages! And with help from the parents at the conference, reading the text to their children in their mother tongue, it was fantastic to see how children imagine space research. And finally, it was an amazing experience for me to realise that even though I could not speak the language of a child, it still was possible to ask them what their drawing means and to get an answer that I could understand.
The painting competition was appreciated very much by everybody, and it also took place as “Cosmo Paint” in 2018, and became an established event at the conference child care. But since the divisions of EGU cover a wide range of geo- and planetary sciences, the topic of the event is now moving around through all divisions. In 2019 we could see many drawings of penguins, arctic ships and snowflakes (Cryospheric Sciences division, CR). And the “Volcanic Paint” at the next EGU general assembly will cover the world of geochemistry, mineralogy, petrology and volcanology (GMPV division).
“The finest language is mostly made up of simple unimposing words.”
Note: You can find the booklet with all translations for download. Please do not use it without citing the author, but have fun using it.
“What is that we human beings ultimately depend on? We depend on our words. We are suspended in language. Our task is to communicate experience and ideas to others.”
At 04:25 UTC this morning, BepiColombo made its closest approach to Earth at a low altitude of 12,700 km. This was its first and only flyby of Earth. BepiColombo, the first ESA mission to Mercury, will make a series of nine gravity-assist manoeuvres to reach its final destination. The next two flybys will be of Venus in October 2020 and August 2021.
Below are images of the flyby submitted by observers around the world for the BepiColombo Earth Flyby Photo Competition. The closing date for the competition is Sunday 19 April – 23:59 CEST.
Submitted images and videos with their full descriptions:
Credit: Kiso Observatory, UTokyo Location of image or observation: Kiso, Nagano, Japan ( 137°37″31’5 [E], 35°47″50’0 [N], Altitude: 1132m ) Time of image or observation: 2020:04:10 20:56 – 21:08 (JST) Time zone: JST (UTC+9) YouTube About your image or observation: This image was taken by the wide-field CMOS camera Tomo-e Gozen on 1.0-m Kiso Schmidt telescope without a wavelength-selective filter with a 12-min exposure from 11:56 on Apr. 10th 2020 (UT). The field-of view is 31.7′ x 17.8′. The center of the image is located at (RA, Dec) = (9:42:23, -0:13:26). North is up.
Credit: Alain Maury, Jean Marc Mari and Joaquin Fabrega Location: IAU site number W94, or close to 22°57’09.8” South and 68°10’48.7” West Time zone : Right now UT-4h (winter time) The video is made mostly from individual frames taken with a 40cm telescope. I also included some of the ESA images because I thought they are quite impressive.
Credit: Northolt Branch Observatories Location: 51.554679, -0.372070 Time: 10-04-2020 21:13 UTC Time Zone: British Summer Time (GMT+1) We used the observatories 0.25m Ritchey-Chretien and QHY42 CMOS camera to obtain astrometry on BepiColombo before it left the vicinity of Earth. A piece of space debris also passes through the field of view. We identified it as INSAT 2D, a defunct geostationary satellite.
Official Kick-off for the Europlanet Telescope Network
The Europlanet 2024 Research Infrastructure (RI) not only builds on but also extends the ambitious programme of its predecessor project Europlanet 2020 RI. The establishment of a network of small telescope facilities within Europe and beyond is one of these new activities that will be carried out within the course of the project.
To achieve this goal, a new Work Package, called “NA2 – Coordination of Ground-based Observations” was set-up, which officially started its activity on March 30, 2020, with a full-day virtual Kick-Off Meeting. The web-conference was attended by 37 participants representing Europlanet 2024 RI and the Work Package team but also a diverse set of different telescope facilities from all over Europe.
Besides introducing these observatories, the main goal of the kick-off meeting was to discuss the aims and goals of NA2 for the upcoming four project years. These contain the development of a central website for observational alerts and the organization of coordinated compaigns, amateur training workshops, and the establishment of the Europlanet Telescope Network itself. But besides building a network, NA2 will also provide a broad set of support and funding opportunities such as supporting:
scientists or amateurs who want to observe at specific facilities,
observatories who observe in coordinated observation campaigns
workshops for the organisation of such campaigns.
An unbureaucratic application system through which researchers will be able to apply for funding will be set-up by the team of NA2 and its Scientific Advisory Panel and is expected to go online in May 2020.
While the current Europlanet Telescope Network comprises about 20 different facilities, this number is going to be expanded during the course of the project. We are not a closed club – any observatory that wants to join is highly welcome to get involved in the Europlanet Telescope Network!
Manuel Scherf, the Work Package Leader of the NA2 Europlanet Telescope Network said, “The NA2 Kick-Off Meeting was a successful starting point of a new and exciting activity. Let’s together take this opportunity to build a new network, bringing in new communities and fostering the coordination of ground-based observation campaigns in Europe and beyond.“
If you are interested to become part of the Europlanet Telescope Network, feel free to contact Manuel Scherf: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Spot BepiColombo during its ‘goodbye flyby’ – Share your pictures and you could win a prize
On 10 April, BepiColombo will be visible to amateur and professional astronomers during its first – and only – Earth flyby, as the spacecraft makes its way to Mercury, the innermost planet of the Solar System.The best place to spot it is the Southern Hemisphere, but observers in southern locations of the Northern Hemisphere might also catch a parting view of the spacecraft.
By the time of the flyby, BepiColombo will have travelled almost 1.4 billion km – roughly nine times the distance between Earth and the Sun – since the European-Japanese mission was launched in October 2018. Yet, passing over at an altitude of just 12 700 km, it will come within just a couple of thousand kilometres of our planet’s exosphere, the outermost layer of the atmosphere, providing us with the last chance to say hello – and goodbye.
This is the first of a series of nine gravity-assist manoeuvres that the spacecraft will use to reach its final destination. The next two flybys will see BepiColombo proceed towards Venus in October 2020 and August 2021, respectively, followed by six flybys of Mercury itself to further adjust the trajectory. Eventually, the mission’s two science orbiters – ESA’s Mercury Planetary Orbiter and Mio, the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) – will separate from the Mercury Transfer Module in late 2025 and start their scientific operations at Mercury in early 2026.
Say goodbye to BepiColombo
BepiColombo will make its closest Earth approach at 05:24:58 BST (06:24:58 CEST) on 10 April 2020 as it crosses the sky from East to West. The spacecraft will not be visible to the naked eye, but observers with access to a small telescope, binoculars or a camera might be able to catch the Mercury explorer as it bids farewell to our home planet.
“The flyby has an emotional effect,” says Johannes Benkhoff, BepiColombo Project Scientist. “It’s the last time that we can see the spacecraft from Earth, so we are inviting amateur and professional astronomers to observe it before it goes.”
The scheduled flyby takes place as billions of people across the world face an exceptional situation caused by the ongoing coronavirus pandemic, which limits human movement and therefore also the access to many professional telescopes. Amateur astronomers in suitable locations, far from large cities, can contribute from their home terrace or garden.
“BepiColombo should be visible with a small telescope, accessible to amateur astronomers in the Southern Hemisphere or in southern parts of the Northern Hemisphere,” adds Joe Zender, BepiColombo Deputy Project Scientist.
“If you live in southern Europe – south of Rome or Madrid, for example – you might be able to glimpse it for a moment, and the further south you are, the longer you should be able to see it. If something appears as a moving star in the field of view of your telescope or camera, that will be Bepi.”
The planets Jupiter, Saturn and Mars – visible to the naked eye – will also be in the sky in the early hours of 10 April, providing an interesting configuration for astro-photographers. Unfortunately, another bright source will be in the sky too, the Moon, making BepiColombo more challenging to observe.
“BepiColombo will be also visible from Japan in the late hours of 10 April, as it moves away from our planet,” says Go Murakami, BepiColombo Project Scientist at JAXA. “The conditions are not the best but some professional observatories will try to observe it, along with amateur astronomers.”
Besides their symbolic value, the observations will be useful for scientists to calibrate some of the onboard instruments and check their science operations tools.
You can compute your own plot of BepiColombo’s motion across the sky for your location, by adding your latitude and longitude in this tool developed by a team of BepiColombo scientists from the National Institute for Astrophysics in Italy: https://bepicolombo.iaps.inaf.it.
Under all circumstances, please remember to obey the appropriate social distancing rules and regulations of the country you reside in.
For anyone at northern latitudes or without access to telescopes and binoculars, follow @BepiColombo, @esascience and @esaoperations on Twitter for live updates. The three spacecraft modules also have personalised accounts (@ESA_Bepi, @JAXA_MMO, and @ESA_MTM) that you may follow for extra content and a unique take on the mission.
Around closest approach, BepiColombo will have a magnitude of 8, meaning that it will not be visible to the naked eye (the faintest sources in the sky visible to the naked eye have a magnitude of 6, with lower magnitude values indicating brighter objects).
Covid-19 – Impacts on Europlanet Society and Europlanet 2024 Research Infrastructure
Europlanet is monitoring the global Covid-19 outbreak, with the aim of supporting international efforts to slow the spread of the virus and ensure the safety of individuals and communities.
08 May – new update onEuroplanet Science Congress (EPSC) 2020: EPSC2020 will be held as a virtual meeting. Full details of the format of the meeting and the relaunch of abstract submission will be announced before the end of May here and on the EPSC2020 website.
Europlanet Society Executive Office and Europlanet 2024 RI Office: The teams in both Europlanet Offices are working remotely and will endeavour to respond to any queries you may have about the impact of Covid-19 on the Europlanet Society or Europlanet 2024 RI.
Europlanet 2024 RI Transnational Access Call for Applications: The first Call for Applications has now closed. The time period during which the TA visits can be undertaken has been extended to the end of 2021.
Europlanet Society Committee Funding Scheme: The review panel will take into account the possibility of timelines in submitted proposals changing due to Covid-19. Results will be announced by the end of May.
Europlanet Early Careers (EPEC) Annual Week 2020: The EPEC Annual Week has been postponed from June 2020.
Europlanet 2024 RI: Where possible, meetings and workshops are being held virtually. Other events and programmes requiring travel will be delayed until a time when it is safe for them to go ahead. If severe restrictions continue into autumn 2020, many deliverables and activities of the project will be disrupted. The Europlanet 2024 RI Management team will continue to monitor the changing situation and revise plans where necessary to maximise support for the community over the duration of the project, while ensuring the safety of those involved.
For the sixth interview in our series of Motivational Journeys, we talk to Dr Murthy Gudipati, an astrochemist working at NASA JPL-Caltech.
Dr. Murthy Gudipati’s research focuses on understanding the physics and chemistry of interstellar and Solar System ices through laboratory simulations, observations and instrumentation or simply evolution of ices in the Universe. Originally from a small village in southern India, Dr Gudipati tells us about the journey that his career has taken him on.
His key pieces of advice include to be resilient, think out of the box, keep reprioritising your activities and make sure that you have back-up plans.
EPSC2020 will take place at the Palacio de Congresos de Granada, Granada, Spain, from 27 September to 2 October 2020.
The Europlanet Science Congress (formerly the European Planetary Science Congress) is the annual meeting place of the Europlanet Society. With a track record of 14 years and regularly attracting around 1000 participants, the Europlanet Science Congress is the largest planetary science meeting in Europe. It covers the entire range of planetary sciences with an extensive mix of presentations and workshops while providing a unique space for networking and exchange of experiences.
The current list of sessions is organised around the following Programme Groups:
For the fifth interview in our series of Motivational Journeys, we talk to Dr Athena Coustenis, Director of Research with the National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) of France, working at Paris Observatory in Meudon, specialising in Planetology.
Athena’s research focuses on planetary atmospheres and surfaces, with an emphasis on outer Solar System bodies – in particular icy moons like Titan, Enceladus, Ganymede and Europa that have a high astrobiological potential. She is Co-Investigator of three of the instruments (CIRS, HASI, DISR) aboard the Cassini/Huygens space mission to Saturn and Titan and is a member of the Science Working Team and Co-I of the JANUS camera for the JUICE mission to Jupiter’s icy moons.
In this interview, Athena tells us about how she managed to study two degrees at a time – in English literature and astronomy – and excel in both.
Post-doctoral position at the Early Life traces and Evolution-Astrobiology labororatory (University of Liège)
In the frame of the FNRS project “Life in Archean coastal environments” and the ICDP project BASE “Barberton Archean Surface Environments”, we are looking for a postdoctoral researcher with experience and interest in:
Astrobiology, Geobiology and Paleobiology (traces of life, microfossils, microbial mats)
Analyses of organics and minerals using light and electron microscopy (TEM), and Raman and FTIR micro-spectroscopy
Fieldwork and/or drill core sampling
In-situ analyses of C and N stable isotopes
Analyses using SR-XRF and SR-XANES
The project aims to characterize the past
morphological and geochemical traces of early life preserved in fresh pristine
cores drilled in the 3.2 Ga Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South
Africa, the oldest best preserved siliciclastic succession preserving coastal
sediments, from marine to terrestrial environments. The expected outcomes include
a better understanding of early Earth habitability and evolution of the early
microbial biosphere in coastal siliciclastic ecosystems, as well as a
refinement of biogenicity criteria and fossilization (taphonomic) processes.
This approach is also relevant to refine strategies for the detection of
possible fossil life traces on early Mars during the ESA EXOMARS 2020 mission,
which will use similar instruments in a siliciclastic setting on Mars (Oxia
planum, with 4 Ga bedded clay-rich sediments in channels and plain), but also for
the future NASA Mars 2020 sample return mission that will allow geochemical
analyzes on Earth in clean labs.
Candidates should have a PhD degree in
sciences, preferably in geosciences, biology and/or analytical chemistry. The
ideal candidates will show scientific curiosity, ability to work in collaboration,
and interests in early life evolution and astrobiology. The working language is
English. The fellowship is competitive and allows comfortable living in
Belgium. The fellowship will be exempted from taxes but subject to the employee
social security. The researcher will be based in the laboratory Early Life
traces and Evolution-Astrobiology at the University of Liège (promotor Prof E
Javaux), and will also work in collaboration with the Laboratoire G-Time at the
Université Libre de Bruxelles (co-promotor Prof V Debaille) and with the
international teams of the ICDP BASE project. Appointment is for 1 year,
renewable up to 2 times (3 years in total) depending on results and progress.
The researcher in “international mobility” shall not have resided or
carried out his/her main activity (job, studies…) in Belgium for more than 24
months during the last 3 years directly before the first stay as a Postdoctoral
fellow. The first hiring period shall start at the latest exactly 6 years after
obtaining the academic degree of doctor, after defense of a PhD thesis. The
maximum period of time mentioned above is extended for one additional year per
childbirth and/or adoption occurring after obtaining the PhD.
To apply, send your CV with a motivation letter in English, clearly indicating which of the skills above you have to offer (plus 2 potential referees) to the promotor of the project Emmanuelle Javaux (ej.javaux[at]uliege.be), before March 15th 2020. The position starts in July 2020 but the starting date can be adapted.
The second ‘Afar Desert Class’ will take place on 10th February 2020 at Hamed’Ela, Afar, Ethiopia. The class aims to engage children and the community from the village nearest to the Dallol planetary analogue field site. Through a playtime program, they will discover what the amazing environments of the Afar Desert and the Dallol volcano have to offer. To find out more, read this interview with Barbara Cavalazzi following the first ‘Afar Desert Class’ in February 2019.
Images from the first Afar Desert School in February 2019.
During two days, representatives of the European Commission, the European Parliament, national governments, the European space agencies, the scientific world and industries met in Brussels to discuss space-related subjects, covering areas like space for prosperity and sustainability, science and innovation, digitisation and connectivity, Space for society and economy. The plenary discussions and high level constructive debates were followed by a thousand participants representing stakeholders from the space sector and beyond.
J. Borrell, Vice-President of the European Commission, gave an enlightening speech on space as the new geopolitical frontier, considering that several countries around the world now have created space defence agencies. Mr. Borrell urged Europe to take actions to strengthen the collaborative aspects of space and to secure European access to space. He introduced also the “3Cs” related to space:
Congested (i.e. more and more people dealing with space, not only space agencies but also private companies; the number of satellites is growing with larger constellations with smaller life time; the augmented risk with the increasing space debris)
Contested (legal space is not yet official)
Competitive (i.e. the digital economy, broad security, research competitiveness). In the following days most of the discussions and debates developed these issues further, providing insights and points of view from different stakeholders.
Another idea largely shared through the speakers was cooperation and collaboration, culminating with the motto “United Space in Europe” of J.D. Wörner, Director General of the European Space Agency. Indeed the sole answer to the rising number of conflicts, to climate changes, is to unite forces – research, industry, policy makers – to raise the general public awareness and to propose new ways of using and sharing space resources. The talk of M. Vestager, Executive Vice-President of the EC was remarkable, insisting on the need for Europe to be proud of its achievements of which the citizens are not always aware, although space is now impacting more and more their every day life.
Artificial intelligence and big data were mentioned a lot, linked to the accrued number of data which request different and new ways for their interpretation. Security was also a major topic addressed during the two days: security and safety for the citizens, data and communication; but also secured access to space for Europe, which needs to be independent of the other main space actors like China and the US.
Another new aspect which was discussed at length, concerned the legal framework related to space which is still quite ill-defined. It is noteworthy that Luxembourg is the first European country that has voted a specific law to allow industrial organisations to possess, use and commercialise any space resources. This is a change of paradigm in the definition of space missions: today resources have to be processed on Earth and brought to space to support missions, so why not use the resources space can offer us?
The difficulty of having all European partners acting as one has been recognised by many, with a clear wish to be more transparent and faster in the decision making, and more efficient in investing in risky and disruptive projects.
The Europlanet Science Congress 2020 (EPSC2020) will take place at the Palacio de Congresos de Granada, Granada, Spain, from 27 September to 2 October 2020.
The Europlanet Science Congress (formerly the European Planetary Science Congress) is the annual meeting place of the Europlanet Society. With a track record of 14 years and regularly attracting around 1000 participants, the Europlanet Science Congress is the largest planetary science meeting in Europe. It covers the entire range of planetary sciences with an extensive mix of talks, workshops and poster sessions while providing a unique space for networking and exchange of experiences.
The success of this meeting is founded on the excellence of its sessions and conveners. So, we encourage you to make session proposals on the conference website by 12th February 2020.
The meeting will cover the whole scope of planetary science and you can propose sessions for the following programme groups:
For the fourth interview in our series of Motivational Journeys, we talk to Dr. Linda Spilker of NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).
Linda is the Cassini Project Scientist at JPL. She was inspired by the Gemini and Apollo mission during her early childhood to pursue a career in astronomy. When she joined JPL, she had the opportunity to work on the Voyager mission from its early phases. For her, the mission was like reliving her childhood days, when she used to look tiny Jupiter and Saturn through her telescope. She was one of the first people to look the images of these planets closely. Her piece of advice for early career would be: “Try as many things as you can through your career and find your passion through it.”
2019 has been another packed year for Europlanet, with the first anniversary of the launch of the Europlanet Society, the first elections of the Society’s Executive Board, the completion of the Europlanet 2020 RI project and preparations for a new, bigger and more comprehensive research infrastructure. Here, the outreach team has chosen its highlights from the past 12 months.
December – Launch of Cheops
This December, the planetary science community has welcomed a new chapter in exoplanet research with the launch of the Cheops mission. Cheops, the Characterising Exoplanet Satellite, is a space-based telescope dedicated to observing exoplanets as they transit in front of their host stars in order to measure their density and find out more about the planet’s composition and internal structure. The mission is a partnership between ESA and Switzerland, with involvement from 10 ESA Member States. If you would like to find out more about the mission, you can catch up on a pre-launch press briefing with the Cheops team at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 in Geneva back in September.
November – Motivational Journeys
This autumn, the Diversity Working Group of our EPEC Early Career network launched a new monthly video series of ‘Motivational Journeys’. In this series, EPEC has interviewed experienced scientists from various backgrounds and asked them to share personal stories about their early days, their motivation and their strategies for success. The videos are released monthly on the Europlanet Society website and you can watch all the videos on our YouTube playlist.
October – Welcome to our newly elected Europlanet Society Executive Board
In October, the newly elected Europlanet Society Executive Board met for the first time. The Executive Board is responsible for overseeing the governance of the Society and consists of the five officers of the Europlanet Society (President, two Vice-Presidents, Secretary and Treasurer) and six other members.
The current members of the Executive Board of the Europlanet Society have been elected during the Europlanet General Assembly at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 in Geneva. You can find out more about them here.
September – EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019
The 2019 Joint Meeting (www.epsc-dps2019.eu) of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) took place at the Centre International de Conférences de Genève (CICG), Geneva, Switzerland, from Sunday 15 to Friday 20 September 2019. The 2019 Joint Meeting was the biggest to to date with 1731 attendees, beating the records of 1532 participants in Nantes in 2011 and 1437 in Pasadena in 2016.
A total of 1938 presentations were scheduled at the meeting, including 1062 orals and 876 posters in 58 sessions, plus 39 splinter workshops and 16 community events. As well as almost 1000 European and over 600 US participants, we welcomed over 90 attendees from Asia as well as researchers from Africa, Australia, Canada, Central and South America.
August – Europlanet 2020 RI project comes to a successful conclusion
August brought to an end the highly successful Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (RI) project. From 1 September 2015 until 31st August 2019, Europlanet 2020 RI received €9.95 million funding under the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme to implement an advanced research infrastructure for planetary science. Europlanet 2020 RI was coordinated by the Open University, UK, with 34 beneficiary institutions from 20 European countries. The project had significant achievements:
Europlanet 2020 RI provided access to the world’s largest coordinated collection of planetary simulation and analysis facilities. Over the five calls issued by Europlanet 2020 RI, in excess of 1480 access days were provided to the five field sites and 11 laboratory facilities.
Over 50 planetary datasets and 18.3 million data products are now accessible through the VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) Virtual Observatory developed through Europlanet 2020 RI. . Planetary Space Weather Service (PSWS) toolkits created to track planetary or solar events through the Solar System have attracted over 15,000 users from academia and industry worldwide.
84 workshops and training sessions organised during Europlanet 2020 RI have been attended by more than 3,000 researchers, industrial representatives, outreach professionals, teachers and policy makers.
To read more about the outcomes of Europlanet 2020 RI, see the Final Report.
July – 2nd Planetary Mapping and Virtual Observatory Workshop
One of the final highlights of the Europlanet 2020 RI project was the 2nd Planetary Mapping and Virtual Observatory Workshop, which took place in July 2019. The workshop aimed to bring together the geologic, geospatial and VO communities at European scale to progress knowledge, tools and standards for mapping the Solar System. The programme included updates on VESPA, PLANMAP and Data / science infrastructures (OneGeology, INSPIRE, EPOS), as well as lightning talks, tutorials and hackathons. If you missed it, you can find all the presentations and livestreams of the lightning talks online.
June – Apollo 50, Summer Schools and Regional Hub meeting
Europlanet marked the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 Moon Landing with events to support its Regional Hub network and early career researchers.
From 3-5 June, 23 representatives of Europlanet 2020 RI, the Europlanet Society, the Regional Hubs and the planetary science community met in Budapest to develop a strategy for the coming year in widening participation in under-represented states, building links with industry and developing a strong planetary science community supported by the Regional Hubs. Outcomes of the meeting included a successful submission for a session at the EuroScience Open Forum (ESOF) 2020 in Trieste, plans for a systematic demographic survey of the community, and a coordinated Hub presence at the EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2019 in Geneva.
From 11-21 June, Europlanet 2020 RI welcomed 21 students, early career researchers and amateur astronomers to a summer school at the Molėtai Astronomical Observatory in Lithuania. The 2019 course was the 20th anniversary of the inaugural summer school organised by the University of Vilnius at MAO and the third time that it has been supported by Europlanet 2020 RI. A priority for Europlanet is to support planetary science in under-represented states, so we were particularly delighted that the class of 2019 included students from Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Lithuania, Poland, Turkey and Romania, as well as Austria, France, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Spain, Vietnam and the UK.
May – 2nd EPEC Annual Week
The 2nd EPEC (Europlanet Early Career network) Annual Week was held at the University of Lisbon, Portugal from 20th-24th May 2019. 44 early career professionals from all over the world and across the Europlanet community gathered to discuss current and future space activities in Europe. The workshop brought together experts and young professionals to share their ideas and experiences about research, outreach and future goals, in an effort to promote international collaboration and increase the interest of younger generations in science. The talks given during the workshop covered several topics related to careers in space science, as well as science policy and future space research.
The 3rd EPEC Annual Week will take place in Padova, Italy, in 2020. Look out for details on the EPEC news pages of the Europlanet Society website.
April – Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement Announced
In April, the 2019 Europlanet Prize for Public Engagement with Planetary Science was awarded to Dr Amelia Ortiz-Gil in recognition of her pioneering work in developing educational and outreach resources for people with a range of physical and cognitive special needs.
Dr Ortiz-Gil has more than 15 years’ experience working in outreach at the University of Valencia (Spain), and has led numerous initiatives to promote accessibility in astronomy, including the development of tactile 3D planetary globes of the Moon, Mars and Venus.
March – Planning for the future with the world’s largest collection of planetary simulation and analytical facilities
In March 2019, a consortium of 56 beneficiaries submitted a bid to the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme proposing a new, upgraded research infrastructure (RI) to support planetary science in Europe. The Europlanet 2024 RI project was selected in August 2019 and the consortium is currently in preparation of the Grant Agreement with the EC.
Europlanet 2024 RI represents a step-change in ambition for planetary science worldwide. The project will provide access to 31 Transnational Access facilities on five continents and four Virtual Access services linking over 100 data services and catalogues. Innovations include the establishment of a ground-based observation network to support space-based missions, the launch of an interactive mapping service to provide virtual exploration of planetary surfaces, and the development of machine learning tools for data mining to fully exploit and analyse planetary data sets.
We look forward to starting this adventurous project in the spring of 2020!
February – Afar Desert Class
In February, Barbara Cavalazzi from the University of Bologna led the first ‘Afar Desert Class’, a learning experience supported by Europlanet 2020 RI for elementary and middle school students of the village located nearest to the Danakil Depression planetary analogue field site. The course took place from February 23rd to 25th and involved 60 children from the Hamed’Ela elementary school, their six teachers and many members of the community of the village. Teachers learned about the geological peculiarities of their region, and children were taken out to the site to discover what their region means from a scientific and geological point of view.
January – EPEC warms up winter with new series of Inspiring Outreach Stories
In January, Europlanet’s EPEC network kicked off an inspiring New Year with a series of stories by Early Career researchers telling us about their outreach activities. The stories are published monthly and you can find the complete archive on the EPEC Outreach Working Group page.
Europlanet 2020 RI Case Study – Isotope analysis for rare samples
Innovation has been a major part of the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (RI), particularly in its programme of Joint Research Activities. In the first two years of the project, Europlanet 2020 RI carried out a rigorous evaluation of the performance of 1013 Ohm amplifiers developed together with ThermoFisher for use in isotopic analysis of rare planetary samples, such as meteorites or materials retured by missions.
This work has resulted in a tenfold improvement in precision over conventional resistors, enabling significantly smaller sample sizes to be analysed.
ThermoFisher has released the 1013 Ohm resistors as a commercial product applied to a wide variety of instrumentation. The 1013 Ohm amplifiers have been installed at both the Vrie University Amsterdam (VUA) and the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques (CRPG), and were used in Transnational Access (TA) visits supported through Europlanet 2020 RI between 2017 and 2019.
This ground breaking technology has opened up new frontiers across the spectrum of analytical chemistry, with potential applications for a very broad range of non-planetary users for whom sample size is a key issue, e.g. in “non-destructive” analysis of archaeological and art objects.
As an example, an interdisciplinary study of tiny mineral inclusions in diamonds published in Nature Communications by VUA in 2017 discovered that the diamonds were geologically “young”. The results showed that certain volcanic events on Earth may still be able to create super-heated conditions previously thought to have only existed early in the planet’s history before it cooled. These findings have implications for diamond prospecting.
The team at VUA is currently working with Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner to use isotopic analysis to assist in the identification of human remains for undocumented border crossers who do not survive the journey between Mexico and the United States. In 2017, researchers from the University of Oxford were awarded funding to apply micro-analytical techniques to museum quality artefacts to determine their place of origin (provenance).
Collaborations with ThermoFisher will be ongoing beyond the Europlanet 2020 RI project to develop further improvements in the technology. Practical applications of the analysis of small samples and the work is expected to open up new areas of research in planetary science and other disciplines.
Find out more about the outcomes of Europlanet 2020 RI in the Final Report.
Europlanet 2020 RI has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 654208.
Europlanet 2024 RI has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 871149